What is hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly?

Hyperreactive Malarial Splenomegaly (HMS) is defined as a massive enlargement of the spleen resulting from abnormal immune responses after repeated exposure to the malaria parasites. This study was carried out in Khartoum, Sudan. Sudan is considered to be one of the countries where HMS is quite prevalent.

What causes splenomegaly in malaria?

Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) represents one of the leading causes of massive splenomegaly in malaria-endemic countries [1]. HMS is caused by an aberrant immune response to a chronic antigenic stimulation in subjects long exposed to malaria parasites [2].

Is splenomegaly a symptom of malaria?

Infection by malaria is the most common cause of spleen rupture and splenomegaly, albeit variably, a landmark of malaria infection.

How do you treat HMS?

Medication Summary Antimalarial drugs have been the only drugs to be used in hyperreactive malarial syndrome (HMS) and have been shown to be effective in treatment. Clinical trials that address the drug of choice, efficacy, or duration of treatment or prophylaxis are lacking.

What is massive splenomegaly?

Splenomegaly is a common finding in multiple diseases; however, massive enlargement of the spleen is seen in few conditions. Most authors define massive splenomegaly when the spleen reaches the iliac crest, crosses the midline or weights more than 1500 g.

What causes splenomegaly?

Infections, such as mononucleosis, are among the most common causes of splenomegaly. Problems with your liver, such as cirrhosisand cystic fibrosis, can also cause an enlarged spleen. Another possible cause of splenomegaly is juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. This condition can cause inflammation of the lymph system.

Is splenomegaly a complication of malaria?

Chronic malaria is usually defined as a long-term malarial infection in semi-immune subjects, usually without fever or other acute symptoms. The untreated infection may evolve to hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS), a life-threatening complication.

Which gland is enlarged in malaria?

Besides attacks, persons with malaria commonly have anemia (owing to the destruction of red blood cells by the parasites), enlargement of the spleen (the organ responsible for ridding the body of degenerate red blood cells), and general weakness and debility.

Does chloroquine treat splenomegaly?

Chloroquine diphosphate can be administered in weekly suppressive doses for at least seven months without undesirable side-effects, even in pregnancy, and is recommended for the treatment of splenomegaly due to chronic malaria.

What is splenomegaly etiology?

What is splenomegaly prognosis?

Prognosis. The prognosis for patients with splenomegaly is usually excellent and not substantially different from age-matched controls, but it is impacted by the underlying disease state rather than the presence of splenomegaly or the postsplenectomy state.

What is splenomegaly symptoms?


  • Pain or fullness in the left upper belly that can spread to the left shoulder.
  • A feeling of fullness without eating or after eating a small amount because the spleen is pressing on your stomach.
  • Low red blood cells (anemia)
  • Frequent infections.
  • Bleeding easily.