What does a monocyte differentiate into?

Monocytes can differentiate into inflammatory or anti-inflammatory subsets. Upon tissue damage or infection, monocytes are rapidly recruited to the tissue, where they can differentiate into tissue macrophages or dendritic cells.

What triggers monocyte differentiation?

Growth factors, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and M-CSF play a principal role in their activation: GM-CSF drives the differentiation of “pro-inflammatory” monocytes to M1 macrophages, while M-CSF regulates differentiation of the “anti-inflammatory” subset of monocytes to M0 …

How do macrophages differentiate into M1 and M2?

Macrophages were differentiated starting from the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Once differentiated in the presence of PMA, they can be polarized into M1 or M2 macrophages that express markers similarly to polarized macrophages obtained from freshly isolated monocytes.

What are the three types of monocytes?

Human monocytes are divided in three major populations; classical (CD14+CD16−), non-classical (CD14dimCD16+), and intermediate (CD14+CD16+). Each of these subsets is distinguished from each other by the expression of distinct surface markers and by their functions in homeostasis and disease.

Are monocytes CD64+?

Surface analyses revealed that the surface antigen pattern of CD64+ monocytes corresponds to the phenotype of typical unseparated monocytes. CD64- monocytes showed lower activity in the phagocytosis of unopsonized particles and also lower zymosan- or latex-induced chemiluminescence than CD64+ monocytes.

Are monocytes terminally differentiated?

Monocytes are the third subgroup of mononuclear phagocyte system and can be found in the peripheral circulation. Historically, it was postulated that monocytes act as a bridge, linking mononuclear phagocyte precursors in the BM with terminally differentiated tissue-resident mononuclear phagocytes.

How do you distinguish between monocytes and macrophages?

Understanding the Difference Monocytes typically circulate through the blood for 1–3 days before migrating into tissues, where they become macrophages or dendritic cells. Macrophages are monocytes that have migrated from the bloodstream into any tissue in the body.

How do monocytes differ from macrophages in vitro?

Macrophage Differentiation Protocol

  1. Isolate mononuclear cells (day 0).
  2. Analyze mononuclear cells (day 0).
  3. Let the monocytes attach (day 0).
  4. Prepare the complete Macrophage Generation Medium DXF (day 0).
  5. Wash the adherent cell fraction (day 0).
  6. Start the macrophage differentiation (day 0).

Which two types of cells can monocytes differentiate into?

They belong to the so called PBMC and are the largest type of cells in this population. Monocytes can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. These are professional APC´s. They are a part of the innate immune system but alos very important for triggering the process of adaptive immunity.

Do monocytes produce IL 10?

CD4+ and CD8+ T cells exhibited a specific defect in IL-10 production, whereas monocytes constitute the major cell type that produce IL-10.

What are monocytes differentiated from?

Monocyte differentiation. Monocytes are differentiated from the committed precursor termed macrophage-DC precursor (MDP) mainly resident in bone marrow and differentiate into either dendritic cells or macrophages. They consist of two main subpopulations: CX3CR1 highCCR2 lowLy6C – and CX3CR1 lowCCR2 highLy6C +.

Is monocytosis an indicator of inflammatory diseases?

Monocytes are highly plastic and heterogeneous, and change their functional phenotype in response to environmental stimulation. Evidence from murine and human studies has suggested that monocytosis can be an indicator of various inflammatory diseases.

What does Ly6C monocytes secrete?

Ly6C – monocytes secrete anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 upon in vivo bacterial infection. In vascular inflammation, Ly6C – monocytes are recruited to tissue and more likely to differentiate into M2 macrophages, which secrete anti-inflammatory cytokine and contribute to tissue repair (Figure 1) [20].

What is the difference between CD14 ++CD16 and CD14++CD16 + monocytes?

It was suggested that CD14 ++CD16 – and CD14 ++CD16 + monocytes resemble mouse Ly6C + inflammatory monocyte subset, whereas CD14 +CD16 ++ monocytes may resemble Ly6C – anti-inflammatory monocytes and have potential role of patrolling vascular endothelium [23].