Where is Vglut found?

The cystine-glutamate antiporter (xCT) is localised to the plasma membrane of cells whilst vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are found in the membrane of glutamate-containing synaptic vesicles.

What are glutamate transporters used for?

Glutamate transporters play the important role of regulating extracellular glutamate concentrations to maintain dynamic synaptic signaling processes. The study of glutamate transporters has undergone three distinct phases.

Where is the malate-aspartate shuttle present?

The malate-aspartate shuttle yields approximately 3 molecules of ATP per molecule of cytosolic NADH and is found in liver, heart and kidney [Voet04]. It is quantatively the most important shuttle for the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH in vertebrate tissues under aerobic conditions.

What is the name of AGC1?

Mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter
Mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter AGC1.

What is Synapsin used for?

The major functions of synapsins. These neuron-specific phosphoproteins are active in various regulatory functions at the synapses which include the formation of presynaptic terminals, regulation of the vesicle reserve pool at presynaptic terminals, synaptogenesis, elongation of axons, and synaptic vesicle docking.

What is VGLUT2?

Uptake of l-glutamate into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Three transporters (VGLUT1–VGLUT3) are expressed in the mammalian CNS, with partial overlapping expression patterns, and VGLUT2 is the most abundantly expressed paralog in the thalamus, midbrain, and brainstem.

How is glutamine transported?

Glutamine can be synthesized but is “conditionally essential” in high proliferative state. Absorption and tissue distribution is carried out by different membrane transporters (SLCs). Some of the transporters allow for glutamine utilization in energy metabolism.

Can glutamate be transported in the blood?

In most regions of the brain, the uptake of glutamate and other anionic excitatory amino acids from the circulation is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Glutamate transport at the BBB has been studied by both in vitro cell uptake assays and in vivo perfusion methods.

What is citrate malate shuttle?

The citrate–malate shuttle refers to the export of citrate into the cytosol via CIC, and its breakdown by ACLY and malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) yielding cytosolic malate which CIC exchanges for citrate.

What happens in malate-aspartate shuttle?

The malate-aspartate (M-A) shuttle provides an important mechanism to regulate glycolysis and lactate metabolism in the heart by transferring reducing equivalents from cytosol into mitochondria.

What is AGC1 in chemistry?

AGC1 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane aspartate/glutamate transporter that contributes to the biosynthesis of nitrogen compounds (1, 5). Agc1p is orthologous to the human proteins aralar (encoded by SLC25A12 (OMIM)) and citrin (encoded by SLC25A13 (OMIM)).

Where is Synapsin found?

Conclusions. Synapsins are a family of abundant evolutionary conserved phosphoproteins found at nearly all synapses in the nervous system. At presynaptic terminals, they reversibly associate with the surface of synaptic vesicles and presumably with cytoskeletal proteins such as actin.