When is CroFab indicated?

CROFAB is indicated for the management of adult and pediatric patients with North American crotalid envenomation. The term crotalid is used to describe the Crotalinae subfamily (formerly known as Crotalidae) of venomous snakes which includes rattlesnakes, copperheads and cottonmouths/water moccasins.

What are the complications of antivenin administration?

Side effects from antivenom can include rash, itching, wheezing, rapid heart rate, fever, and body aches. The use of antivenom depends on how much poison was injected (envenomation) and the type and size of the snake. Large snakes tend to inject more venom than smaller snakes do.

How do you administer antivenom?

Antivenom should be diluted in an appropriate volume of fluid and given by “push” injection over 10 to 15 minutes or by intravenous (IV) infusion over 30 to 60 minutes. Epinephrine must be ready to be given in case of early anaphylactic reactions during the infusion.

What are the signs of envenomation?

swelling, bruising or bleeding from the bite. bite marks on the skin — these might be obvious puncture wounds or almost invisible small scratches. swollen and tender glands in the armpit or groin of the limb that has been bitten. tingling, stinging, burning or abnormal feelings around the skin.

What is the treatment for envenomation?

The specific treatment for crotalid envenomations is antivenom, and each patient should be assessed individually to determine if antivenom is indicated. As of March 2020, there are there two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved products.

What first aid should be given in case of snake bite?

Have the person lie down with wound below the heart. Keep the person calm and at rest, remaining as still as possible to keep venom from spreading. Cover the wound with loose, sterile bandage. Remove any jewelry from the area that was bitten.

How do you dilute antivenom?

Antivenoms that are given intravenously should be diluted in at least 100ml of N. Saline, 5% dextrose or Hartmann’s solution immediately prior to administration. It should initially be administered slowly while the patient is observed for signs of allergic reaction.

How is Crotalidae antivenin injected?

Crotalidae antivenin is injected into a vein through an IV. A healthcare provider will give you this injection. Crotalidae antivenin must be given slowly, and the IV infusion can take at least 60 minutes to complete. antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent is most effective if given within 6 hours after the snakebite occurred.

What is the pathophysiology of snakebite / Crotalid envenomation?

Snakebite / crotalid envenomations are characterized by an erratic and unpredictable clinical course. They should be considered medical emergencies requiring close monitoring. Manifestations of crotalid envenomations may include local tissue injury, coagulopathy, and severe systemic effects.

What are the side effects of antivenin?

Antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent side effects. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives, itching, redness; wheezing, trouble breathing; feeling light-headed; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Some side effects may occur during the injection.