What is expected future spot price?

Futures prices will converge to spot prices by the delivery date. There are 3 hypotheses to explain how the price of futures contracts converge to the expected spot price over their term: expectations hypothesis, normal backwardation, and contango.

Can future price be lower than spot?

This situation is called backwardation. For example, when futures contracts have lower prices than the spot price, traders will sell short the asset at its spot price and buy the futures contracts for a profit. This drives the expected spot price lower over time until it eventually converges with the futures price.

How do you calculate spot price?

There is no mathematical formula for spot price. It is more of an economic concept rather than a mathematical part. At any point in time, forces of demand and supply play an essential role in determining the market price.

What is the difference between spot and future price?

The main difference between spot and futures prices is that spot prices are for immediate buying and selling, while futures contracts delay payment and delivery to predetermined future dates. On the other hand, there is backwardation, which is a situation when the spot price exceeds the futures price.

Why are futures more expensive?

Futures prices take into account expectations of supply and demand and production levels, among other factors. The difference in a commodity’s spot price and the futures price at any given time is attributable to the cost of carry and interest rates.

Why do futures and spot prices converge?

As the futures get closer to expiry, the prices will naturally converge . This is because the futures price is in effect a price in the future (the price at expiry) that takes into account the cost of carry. If this premium or discount gets out of equilibrium the forces of supply and demand will react.

Why do spot and futures prices converge?

Why are futures prices higher than spot prices?

Spot and futures prices differ, because the financial markets are always looking forward, and adjusting expectations accordingly. The basis is the difference between the local spot price of a deliverable commodity and the price of the futures contract for the earliest available date.

Why future price is higher than spot price?

Futures prices above the spot price can be a signal of higher prices in the future, particularly when inflation is high. Speculators may buy more of the commodity experiencing contango in an attempt to profit from higher expected prices in the future.

Is future trading better than spot trading?

An investor with good judgment can make quick money in futures because essentially they are trading with 10 times as much exposure than with normal stocks. Also, prices in the future markets tend to move faster than in the cash or spot markets.

How much money is required for future trading?

Based on the 1% rule, the minimum account balance should, therefore, be at least $5,000 and preferably more. If risking a larger amount on each trade, or taking more than one contract, then the account size must be larger to accommodate. To trade two contracts with this strategy, the recommended balance is $10,000.

Can futures price exceed spot price?

In fact, if the parties going long exerted greater pressure than the parties going short, it might even be possible for the futures price to exceed the expected spot price. When futures prices are lower than expected spot prices, the situation is called normal backwardation.

How long does it take for spot rates to be calculated?

It could be two days after a trade, or even on the same day the deal is completed. A spot rate of 5% is the agreed-upon market price of the transaction based on current buyer and seller action. The general formula for calculating a bond’s price given a sequence of spot rates is given below:

What causes the convergence of futures and spot prices?

The convergence is easily explained by a combination of arbitrage interest and the law of supply and demand. Defining Futures Prices and Spot Prices Investors in futures commit to buying or selling a quantity of something, generally a commodity like corn, at a set price for delivery at a future date.

What is the difference between forward rate and spot rate?

A forward rate indicates the interest rate on a loan beginning at some time in the future, whereas a spot rate is the interest rate on a loan beginning immediately. Thus, the forward market rate is for future delivery after the usual settlement time in the cash market. Deriving Forward Rates from a Set of Spot Rates