What are Cardenolides in milkweed?

The larvae sequester toxic steroids, known as cardenolides, from milkweed (Brower 1969; Brower & Glazier 1975; Malcolm 1991, 1995), and they use these cardenolides as a defense against predators. The bad taste and toxicity of both the larvae and adults are advertised by conspicuous, warning coloration.

What does the word Asclepias mean?

/ (əˈskliːpɪəs) / noun. any plant of the perennial mostly tuberous genus Asclepias; some are grown as garden or greenhouse plants for their showy orange-scarlet or purple flowers: family AsclepiadaceaeSometimes called: milkweed.

Which milkweed is best for monarchs?

swamp milkweed
Three species have particularly wide ranges and are good choices in most regions: common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), swamp milkweed (A. incarnata), and butterflyweed (A. tuberosa).

What is anthraquinone glycosides?

Anthraquinone glycosides are a series of major active ingredients found in all three species. They are key intermediates in the anthraquinone secondary metabolism and the sennnoside biosynthesis. The variation of the anthraquinone glycoside content in rhubarb in response to specific factors remains an attractive topic.

What is Cardenolides writes its chemistry and mechanism of action?

A cardenolide is a type of steroid. Cardenolides are toxic to animals through inhibition of the enzyme Na+/K+‐ATPase, which is responsible for maintaining the sodium and potassium ion gradients across cell membranes.

Is Asclepias the same as milkweed?

Showy Milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) Showy milkweed is the western version of Common milkweed. It is found in the western half of the US and up into Canada. It is hardy in zones 4-9 and is a rhizomatous plant spreading underground or by seeds much like Common milkweed.

Is Asclepias tuberosa a good source of cardenolides?

By contrast, some species of Asclepias are extremely poor sources of cardenolides, such as Asclepias fascicularis, Asclepias tuberosa, and Asclepias angustifolia . Milkweeds are not grown commercially in large scale, but the plants have had many uses throughout human history.

What is the scientific name of Asclepiadaceae?

It previously belonged to the family Asclepiadaceae, which is now classified as the subfamily Asclepiadoideae of the dogbane family, Apocynaceae . The genus was formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, who named it after Asclepius, the Greek god of healing.

What are the characteristics of Asclepias?

Members of the genus Asclepias produce some of the most complex flowers in the plant kingdom, comparable to orchids in complexity. Five petals reflex backwards revealing a gynostegium surrounded by a five-membrane corona. The corona is composed of a five-paired hood-and-horn structure with the hood acting as a sheath for the inner horn.

Do cardenolide concentrations affect the survival of monarchs?

However, under future conditions, monarchs fared much worse on A. curassavica. The decrease in adult survival and mass was associated with increasing cardenolide concentrations under warmer temperatures. Increased temperatures alone reduced monarch forewing length.