How does the glycerophosphate shuttle work?

The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a pathway that translocates electrons produced during glycolysis across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation by oxidizing cytoplasmic NADH to NAD+.

How is malate-aspartate shuttle different from the glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase shuttle?

Malate aspartate shuttle generates 3 ATP for every cytosolic molecule oxidized. So, it is more efficient than the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle.

What is malate-aspartate shuttle system?

The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes simply the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes.

How is glycerol-3-phosphate formed?

Glycerol 3-phosphate is synthesized by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a glycolysis intermediate, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. DHAP and thus glycerol 3-phosphate is also possible to be synthesized from amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates via glyceroneogenesis pathway.

What is malate-aspartate shuttle and glycerol phosphate shuttle?

The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle act to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the mitochondria since the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. The malate-aspartate shuttle is considered the most important shuttle in brain.

What is malate shuttle used for?

The malate-aspartate shuttle system, also called the malate shuttle, is an essential system used by mitochondria, that allows electrons to move across the impermeable membrane between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix. The electrons are created during glycolysis, and are needed for oxidative phosphorylation.

Where is malate-aspartate shuttle?

The malate-aspartate shuttle yields approximately 3 molecules of ATP per molecule of cytosolic NADH and is found in liver, heart and kidney [Voet04]. It is quantatively the most important shuttle for the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH in vertebrate tissues under aerobic conditions.

Where is glycerol-3-phosphate produced?

Glycerol 3-phosphate is produced from glycerol, the triose sugar backbone of triglycerides and glycerophospholipids, by the enzyme glycerol kinase. Glycerol 3-phospate may then be converted by dehydrogenation to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) by the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

How many ATP are produced in glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle?

In eukaryotes, glycerol phosphate shuttle is present which consumes 2 ATP for entry of glycolytic NADH into mitochondria. So, 36 ATP are generated in aerobic respiration via glycerol phosphate shuttle in eukaryotes.

What is calcium glycerol?

Summary. Calcium glycerophosphate is an medication used to treat low levels of phosphate or calcium, as well as an ingredient in dental products to prevent dental caries.

What is the function of the glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle?

Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis. GPD1 is a gene that codes for proteins responsible for converting dihydroxyacetone phosphate and NADH to glycerol-3-phosphate and NAD+ in order to conduct bodily metabolic processes.

How does the glycerol-phosphate shuttle re-oxidize NADH?

The glycerol-phosphate shuttle re-oxidizes NADH by reducing (transferring high-energy electrons to) dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P). At the mitochondrial membrane, G3AP transfers its electrons to FAD within the matrix, forming FADH2.

How is glycerol-3-phosphate converted back to dihydroxyacetone phosphate?

Glycerol-3-phosphate gets converted back to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by an inner membrane-bound mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPDH-M), this time reducing one molecule of enzyme-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to FADH 2.

What is the role of glycerol 3phosphate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle?

It is present in insect flight muscle and in white muscle. This alternative means of moving reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the respiratory chain operates in skeletal muscle and the brain. Cytosolic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase oxidizes NADH to NAD+.