What is water surface discharge?

The Surface Water Discharges Section issues permits for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment systems, including stormwater treatment, which discharge into Delaware’s surface waters. It also regulates the management of wastewater sludge.

What is discharge in water treatment?

A direct discharge means that the wastewater goes into waters of the state (groundwater, streams, lakes, rivers, etc.) without treatment from a POTW. This includes through a storm sewer system that enters waters of the state (See Separate Sewer System picture on next page), a ditch or other conveyance.

How is produced water disposed of?

Most produced water is disposed of by injecting it into deep underground wells, but the geology in some parts of the US is not amenable to such practices, and concerns about inducing seismic activity have the industry looking for alternatives.

Where is the water discharged after treatment?

Domestic wastewater is treated in centralized plants, pit latrines, septic systems or disposed of in unmanaged lagoons or waterways, via open or closed sewers. In some coastal cities domestic wastewater is discharged directly into the ocean.

Why is discharge important for water quality?

It is important because of its impact on water quality and on the living organisms and habitats in the stream. Large, swiftly flowing rivers can receive pollution discharges and be little affected, whereas small streams have less capacity to dilute and degrade wastes.

What is the surface of the water called?

Surface water is any body of water above ground, including streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, reservoirs, and creeks. The ocean, despite being saltwater, is also considered surface water. Water that seeps deep into the ground is called groundwater.

What is influent and effluent?

Influent is water that “flows in”. This is the raw, untreated wastewater. Effluent means to “flow out”. This water is safe for discharge to lakes or rivers.

How do you clean produced water?

The salts in produced water are dissolved as free ions. Currently, these ions can only be removed using advanced water treatment methods, such as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration.

Is brine produced water?

Brine, or produced water, is a byproduct of oil and gas production. It consists of water from the geologic formation, injection water, oil and salts. Brine has a high salt concentration the ions of the salts negatively affect the site’s soil and vegetation, impairing its ability to produce crops and forage.

What are the secondary treatments for produced water?

Before the secondary treatment stages, produced water passes through sand filters to ensure a further reduction of pollutants. The main “secondary” treatments are known as Best Available Techniques for produced water treatment [7].

What is the adsorption media used in water treatment?

The adsorption media is based on resin, polymer, and clay technology. A completely different approach has been followed in a Montana oilfield (U.S.A.) using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation.

What are the technologies and strategies applied to produced water?

Technologies and strategies applied to produced water comprise (Figure 1): Onshore produced water can be re-injected to provide additional oil and gas recovery, treated and used for civil usage or disposed on the reservoir according to regulations and permits.

How to dispose of offshore water?

Offshore produced water can be re-injected into reservoir, disposed as discharge to the sea after suitable treatment or transported onshore for suitable treatments and subsequent disposal.