How many wildland fuel types are there?
The 13 fire behavior fuel models are presented in 4 fuel groups: grasslands, shrublands, timber, and slash.
What are the 4 fuel model groups?
Fuels have been classified into four groups- grasses, brush, timber, and slash.
What is Cffdrs?
The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is a national system for rating the risk of forest fires in Canada. Currently, two subsystems–the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System–are being used extensively in Canada and internationally.
What is FFMC DMC DC ISI?
The Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) represents fuel moisture of forest litter fuels under the shade of a forest canopy. It is intended to represent moisture conditions for shaded litter fuels, the equivalent of 16-hour timelag. It approximates moisture conditions for the equivalent of 53-day (1272 hour) timelag fuels.
What is slash and blowdown?
Shrub (SH) Fuels: The primary carrier of fire in the shrub fuel models is live and dead shrub twigs and foliage in combination with dead and down shrub litter. Slash/Blow down (SB) Fuels: The primary carrier of fire in the SB fuel models is activity fuel or blow down.
What are the types of wildfires?
There are three types of wildfires: Ground fires, surface fires and crown fires. Ground fires occur when plant roots and other organic matter below the soil surface ignite. These fires can grow into surface fires, which burn dead or dry vegetation that’s lying or growing just above the ground.
What fuel model is Pinyon Juniper?
FUEL MODEL F Open stands of pinyon-juniper are represented; however, fire activity will be overrated at low windspeeds and where there is sparse ground fuels.
How is FWI calculated?
The FWI is calculated by combining the Initial Spread Index (ISI) and Buildup Index (BUI). Values greater than 50 are considered extreme. The Drought Code (DC) describes the moisture content of deep, compacted organic soils and heavy surface fuels. Values greater than 425 are considered extreme.
What does high FFMC mean?
6. These codes and indices are indicators of the dryness of the forest fuels and give relative measure of the burning conditions that can be expected for a “standard” fuel type. Low numbers mean wet; high numbers mean dry. The individual fields are: Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)
How is Bui calculated?
The Buildup Index (BUI) is a numeric rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. It is based on the DMC and the DC. The BUI is generally less than twice the DMC value, and moisture in the DMC layer is expected to help prevent burning in material deeper down in the available fuel.
What are the six basic fuel types?
What are the components of the cffdrs?
The diagram below illustrates the components of the CFFDRS. Risk, weather, fuels, and topography provide the necessary inputs to predict fire weather, fire occurrence, and fire behavior. Fuel moisture models are currently being developed for a range of Canadian forest types.
What is a cffbp fuel type?
The classification recognizes coarse vegetative cover and structure types. Each CFFBP Fuel Type integrates the surface and canopy fuel characteristics, providing for evaluation of crown fire initiation and propagation without additional canopy characterizations.
What is the Canadian forest fire danger rating system (CFRS)?
The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, as shown in these flow charts, is a comprehensive system of tools designed to evaluate environmental factors that influence the ignition, spread, and behavior of wildland fire.
What is the history of FBP fuel types?
Stocks et al. (1989) first suggested that fire managers should use the FBP fuel type descriptions to develop agency fuel type maps based on forest inventory data. Hawkes et al. (1995) developed the first such scheme for classifying portions of BC into FBP fuel types, using spatial data at a 4 km2resolution as part of an early fire threat analysis.