Are osteoclasts derived from monocyte?

All of the colonies consisted of nonspecific esterase-positive cells. These results indicate that osteoclasts are also derived from the mature monocytes and macrophages when a suitable microenvironment is provided by bone marrow-derived stromal cells.

What is the origin of osteocytes?

Osteocytes derive from osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells, and are essentially osteoblasts surrounded by the products they secreted. Cytoplasmic processes of the osteocyte extend away from the cell toward other osteocytes in small channels called canaliculi.

What are osteoblasts derived from?

Osteoblasts originate from immature mesenchymal stem cells, which can also differentiate and give rise to chondrocytes, muscle, fat, ligament and tendon cells (Aubin and Triffitt, 2002). Mesenchymal stem cells undergo several transcription steps to form mature osteoblast cells.

Are osteoclasts derived from osteoblasts?

Osteoclast differentiation is inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is produced by osteoblasts and binds to RANKL thereby preventing interaction with RANK. It may be important to note that while osteoclasts are derived from the hematopoietic lineage, osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells.

Are osteoclasts derived from macrophages?

The Macrophages Are One of the Origins of Osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are well-defined and distinctive in bone marrow, which originate from myeloid progenitor or osteal macrophages and is responsible for bone resorption (18, 19). Osteal macrophages can further differentiate into osteoclasts.

How osteoclasts are formed?

Osteoclasts are formed by the fusion of many cells derived from circulating monocytes in the blood. These in turn are derived from the bone marrow. Osteoclasts may have as many as 200 nuclei, although most have only 5 to 20.

What is the role of the osteoblast?

Osteoblasts are specialized mesenchymal cells that synthesize bone matrix and coordinate the mineralization of the skeleton. The unique function of osteoblasts requires substantial amounts of energy production, particularly during states of new bone formation and remodelling.

Do osteoblasts become osteocytes?

During osteogenesis, osteoblasts lay down osteoid and transform into osteocytes embedded in mineralized bone matrix. Despite the fact that osteocytes are the most abundant cellular component of bone, little is known about the process of osteoblast-to-osteocyte transformation.

What causes osteoclast?

High levels of PTH can activate osteoclasts and cause excessive bone breakdown. Calcium in your blood triggers the release of PTH. Low calcium levels in the blood, or hypocalcemia, can cause high levels of PTH. It can also cause your own bone to release calcium to make sure you have enough calcium in your blood.

Are osteoblasts related to macrophages?

Proinflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages can regulate both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Macrophages can enhance osteogenesis through the production of cytokines such as bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and TGF-β1 [43]. Oncostatin is a cytokine of the IL-6 family.