What does the thyroid hormone receptor do?

Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are nuclear receptors which control transcription, and thereby have effects in all cells within the body. TRs are an important regulator in many basic physiological processes including development, growth, metabolism, and cardiac function.

What is thyroid releasing hormone?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is the master regulator of thyroid gland growth and function (including the secretion of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine). These hormones control the body’s metabolic rate, heat generation, neuromuscular function and heart rate, among other things.

What is the receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone?

The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as “thyrotropin”) and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Where is thyroid releasing hormone released?

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, which are located in the brain, help control the thyroid gland. The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

What is the thyroid pathway?

The thyroid hormone signaling pathway has a wide range of functions in terms of individual development, maintenance of homeostasis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. Thyroid hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland, including thyroxine (T3) and triiodothyronine (T4).

What cells do thyroid hormones act on?

Function. The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. It acts to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, help regulate long bone growth (synergy with growth hormone) and neural maturation, and increase the body’s sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness.

What is Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin?

TSI stands for thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. TSIs are antibodies that tell the thyroid gland to become more active and release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood. A TSI test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin in your blood.

Where are thyroid stimulating hormone receptors?

TSHR belongs to a group of G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors and is located at the basolateral membrane of thyroid follicular cells (2).

What is the mechanism of action of TSH?

The released TSH reaches thyroid glands via blood stream to bind to TSH receptor (TSHR) to stimulate production and release of thyroxin (T4) and T3. T3 exerts its actions on bone mainly by binding to TRa. TSH can also act directly on bone cells by binding to TSHR.

How thyroid hormones produce their cellular response?

At the cellular level, THs bind to thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) that are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family. TRs act as ligand-activated transcription factors that bind to their cognate thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the promoters of target genes.