What is a reference gene in PCR?

Reference genes are an internal reaction control that have sequences different than the target. For a gene to be regarded as a reliable reference it must meet several important criteria (Chervoneva et al. 2010). The most important is its expression level unaffected by experimental factors.

What is PCR article?

PCR is a very sensitive technique that allows rapid amplification of a specific segment of DNA. PCR makes billions of copies of a specific DNA fragment or gene, which allows detection and identification of gene sequences using visual techniques based on size and charge.

Why are reference genes used in qPCR?

These reference genes are responsible for measuring and reducing the errors from variations among the samples, extraction and RNA quality and efficiency in cDNA synthesis, internal controls and the different experimental samples (Tichopad et al.

Why is it necessary to include a reference gene?

Reference genes must be taken as any other gene. For example, when analyzing your relative quantification experiment in Applied Biosystems’ software, you are forced to have your reference gene on the same plate like your target gene, otherwise the software is unable to calculate results.

How does RT PCR detect gene expression?

The PCR in combination with prior reverse transcription (RT-PCR) of the mRNA of interest provides a means for measuring gene expression using as few as one cell. The RT-PCR is performed on these samples, then the resulting product is analyzed by gel electrophoresis and densitometry.

What is the most important feature that a reference gene should have?

An ideal reference gene has the following characteristics: first, it is expressed stably in different tissues and cells; second, its expression is not greatly affected by environmental, biological or abiotic stress or other factors; finally, its expression level is similar to that of the target gene.

Why is PCR so important?

PCR has become an important tool for medical diagnosis. PCR can detect and identify bacteria and viruses that cause infections such as tuberculosis, chlamydia, viral meningitis, viral hepatitis, HIV, cytomegalovirus and many others. PCR is used to amplify the gene, which is then sequenced to look for mutations.

What is a good reference gene for qPCR?

Finally, the MIQE guidelines suggest the use of at least two reference genes and to test whether more than two are necessary42. Considering our results, in all the three models tested in our study, at least two reference genes are enough for a strong and reliable normalisation in RT-qPCR experiments.

How do you choose a reference gene?

Pick several and check whether they satisfy the criteria for a good reference gene….The ideal reference gene

  1. expressed in all cells.
  2. constant copy number in all cells.
  3. medium copy number for more accuracy (or similar copy number to gene of interest)

What is PCR and how does it work?

The PCR Process PCR is a simple, yet elegant, enzymatic assay, which allows for the amplification of a specific DNA fragment from a complex pool of DNA. Dr. Kary Mullis, who discovered the PCR assay, stated it “lets you pick the piece of DNA you’re interested in and have as much of it as you want” (Mullis, 1990).

Can reference genes be used in real-time PCR?

Reference genes in real-time PCR This paper aims to discuss various aspects of the use of reference genes in qPCR technique used in the thousands of present studies. Most frequently, these are housekeeping genes and they must meet several criteria so that they can lay claim to the name. Lots of papers report that in different condi …

Why is PCR considered a sensitive assay?

For this reason, PCR is a sensitive assay. Each PCR assay requires the presence of template DNA, primers, nucleotides, and DNA polymerase. The DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that links individual nucleotides together to form the PCR product.

Why can’t I fill out the PCR test form?

If you have a PCR Test Reference number which is say all digits or different from the above requirement it will NOT allow you to complete the form. It is the 2-day test PCR booking reference for the test that you will take within 2 days of your arrival back in the UK that you need to add to this form