What does the pyrogen test measure?
The test methods measure cytokine levels (either IL-1-beta or IL-6) from human blood cells or a human monocytoid cell line. Increased cytokine release is used as a biomarker of a pyrogenic response.
What does a high level of pyrogens mean?
Pyrogens are fever-inducing substances usually derived from microorganisms [endotoxins or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] and when present systemically in sufficient quantity can lead to severe signs of inflammation, shock, multiorgan failure, and sometimes even death in humans.
What is the significance of pyrogen in pharmaceutical preparations?
A pyrogen is a substance that causes fever after intravenous administration or inhalation. Gram negative endotoxins are the most important pyrogens to pharmaceutical laboratories.
What is pyrogen in microbiology?
A pyrogen is a substance that causes a rise in temperature (fever reaction) in a human or animal through the activation of the innate immune system. They constitute a heterogeneous group of contaminants comprising microbial and non-microbial substances.
How are pyrogens produced?
protein and polysaccharide substances called pyrogens, released either from bacteria or viruses or from destroyed cells of the body, are capable of raising the thermostat and causing a rise in body temperature.
How do you detect pyrogens?
Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) The Rabbit Pyrogen Test and the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test are broadly used for pyrogen detection. Both methods use animals and show some limitations. The rabbit pyrogen test shows a lack of robustness as an animal reaction can differ greatly from a human reaction.
What produces pyrogen?
Pyrogens are substances that can produce a fever. The most common pyrogens are endotoxins, which are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. The limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test is used to detect endotoxins.
Which of the following is a function of pyrogens?
protein and polysaccharide substances called pyrogens, released either from bacteria or viruses or from destroyed cells of the body, are capable of raising the thermostat and causing a rise in body temperature. Fever is a highly significant indicator of disease.
What is pyrogen in pharmaceutical industry?
What are the types of pyrogen?
There are two types of natural pyrogens: (1) endogenous pyrogens that the host’s pyrogen cytokines and (2) exogenous pyrogens that are microbial substance (e.g. lipopolysaccharides in the cell wall of certain bacteria).
Where are pyrogens produced?
Exogenous pyrogens are substances, which originate outside the body and which are capable of inducing interleukins. Endogenous pyrogens are substances, which originate inside the body and which are capable of inducing fever by acting on the hypothalamic thermoregulatory centre.