## What does concordant and discordant mean?

A pair of observations is concordant if the subject who is higher on one variable is also higher on the other variable. A pair of observations is discordant if the subject who is higher on one variable is lower on the other variable.

### What is discordant pair?

In contrast, a discordant pair is a pair of two-variable observations such that. That is, if one pair contains a higher value of X then the other pair contains a higher value of Y.

What does a concordance rate measure?

Formally, the concordance rate is the percent of cases in which both members of a pair have a particular attribute. In a study of the relative influence of genes and environment on a mental illness, for example, the attribute is the particular mental illness, and the pairs studied are usually twins.

How do you calculate concordant and discordant pairs?

A pair is concordant if the subject ranked higher on X also ranks higher on Y. The pair is discordant if the subject ranking higher on X ranks lower on Y. The pair is tied if the subjects have the same classification on X and/or Y.

## How is discordance calculated?

A difference of 18% or greater in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring [1]. Birth weight discordance =(larger twin weight−smaller twin weight) / larger twin weight×100.

### What is radiology pathology discordance?

“Concordance means that the results on an imaging exam are explained by the findings of the pathology lab. If the results are discordant—for example, a mammogram shows significant irregularities, but the lab report is normal—we might conclude that the biopsied tissue sampling was not adequate.

What Is percent concordant?

The percent concordance is the percentage that a model’s outcome will be true, based on the observed outcomes from within the dataset. The concordance is calculated by pairing all records in the modeling dataset based on the actual outcome and determining how often the model was accurate in scoring those records.

What is a concordant rate?

the percentage of pairs of twins or other blood relatives who exhibit a particular trait or disorder.

## What does MZ and DZ stand for?

There are two different types of twins: Monozygotic or identical (MZ) Dizygotic, fraternal or non-identical (DZ)

### What is EFW discordance?

The degree of actual intertwin birth weight (BW) or ultrasound estimated fetal weight (EFW) discordance that justifies elective delivery is yet to be established.

How common is CRP/ESR discordance in the US?

Initial CRP and ESR results for each patient were divided into quartiles. CRP/ESR discordance, predefined as results differing by 2 or 3 quartiles, occurred in 212 patients (12%), 105 of whom had high CRP/low ESR discordance (6%) and 107 of whom had high ESR/low CRP discordance (6%).

How accurate are routinely used diagnostic assays in diagnosing discordant testing?

Assuming 100% specificity of the diagnostic assay, the FNR and sensitivity in this group of patients with discordant testing was 9.3% (95% CI 1.5–17.0%) and 90.7% (95% CI 82.6–98.9%) respectively. Studies to understand the FNR of routinely used assays are important to confirm adequate clinical performance.

## How is Human ribonuclease P (RNase P) identified in discordant samples?

All swab sets identified as discordant were tested for the presence of human ribonuclease P (RNAse P) using an RT-PCR assay (see Additional file 1: Table S1) [ 21 ]. Statistical comparison of parametric variables was done using independent t-tests and non-parametric variables using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.