Is HLH considered cancer?

HLH is not a cancer. Over the years cancer treatments have been used in patients with HLH. Consequently, Hematologists and Oncologists who treat cancer also treat children with HLH.

Is HLH a form of leukemia?

In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), HLH has been occasionally described in case-reports. AML patients may be prone to develop HLH due to their disease- and/or treatment-related impaired immune response and their high susceptibility to severe infections, which act as triggering factors.

Can adult HLH be cured?

Stem cell transplant can cure HLH in most cases.

How long can someone with HLH live?

All forms of HLH, including cases treated adequately, may have a high mortality rate. The long-term outlook ( prognosis ) of familial forms without treatment is poor, with a median survival of less than 2 months to 6 months after diagnosis. Even with treatment, only 21-26% are expected to survive 5 years.

What is the survival rate for HLH?

More recent studies have shown that the HLH-94 protocol resulted in an overall survival rate of 55%. Success or failure of an allogeneic BMT is the most important long-term prognostic factor. Unfortunately, many cases are diagnosed late in the course of the disease, after irreversible damage has occurred.

Does Covid cause HLH?

HLH in COVID-19 positive patients is reported in various case reports [14,15]. However, the cases of sHLH in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and are RAT and RT-PCR negative are sparse. Naous et al. reported a case of HLH as a cause of death in the post-COVID-19 patient [5].

Can you live a normal life with HLH?

Stem cell transplant can cure HLH in most cases. There is no way to prevent HLH, but as healthcare providers continue to learn more about it, treatment improves. Most children who are successfully treated go on to live normal lives.

What is the survival rate of secondary HLH?

With a mortality rate of approximately 40% (1), the HLH patient is often critically ill with progressive multiple-organ failure, requiring the resources of an intensive care unit.

What causes death in HLH?

In fatal HLH, death usually occurs during the first 4-8 weeks due to multiple organ failure, bleeding or sepsis [12]. Currently, a series of studies have reported prognostic factors for long-term survival in HLH [13- 15].

How many people in the world have HLH?

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurs in approximately 1 in 50,000 individuals worldwide.