When do we see Kerley B lines?

(Answer to question 3 is a). Edema first spreads through the bronchovascular interstitium and later through the septal interstitium, but Kerley B lines are an infrequent observation in patients with congestive heart failure. Kerley lines are most often seen in patients with chronic or recurrent heart failure.

How do I identify Kerley B lines?

(A) Lines several inches long, rather ragged and radiating from the hilum. They do not bifurcate and they do not follow the normal branching pattern of bronchi and vessels. (B) Short, sharp lines seen only at the bases, usually less than an inch long and running transversely out to touch the pleural margin.

What causes B lines on ultrasound?

In the presence of extravascular lung water (EVLW), the ultrasound beam finds subpleural interlobular septa thickened by edema. The reflection of the beam creates some comet-tail reverberation artifacts, called B-lines or ultrasound lung comets.

What swollen lungs?

Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary edema.

What is Hampton’s hump?

Hampton’s hump is a radiological sign consisting of a peripheral, wedge-shaped opacification adjacent to the pleural surface, which represents pulmonary infarction distal to a pulmonary embolus. Owing to good pulmonary perfusion from collateral blood vessels, this sign is rarely seen in clinical practice.

What do B lines represent?

B lines indicate filling of intralobular or interlobular septa and are often seen in pulmonary edema and interstitial lung diseases. Thickened B lines may fuse together to form coalescent B lines representing peripheral lung ground glass opacities seen in high resolution computed tomography (CT).

What do B lines mean?

B-lines are the manifestation of an interstitial syndrome secondary to pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia or pneumonitis, or diffuse parenchymal lung disease such as pulmonary fibrosis [7].

What is a line and B line?

The A-line is a horizontal artifact indicating a normal lung surface. The B-line is a kind of comet-tail artifact indicating subpleural interstitial edema. The relationship between anterior interstitial edema detected by lung ultrasound and the pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) value was investigated.

What are Kerley A and B lines?

Kerley A lines are linear opacities extending from the periphery to the hila caused by distention of anastomotic channels between peripheral and central lymphatics Kerley B lines are small, horizontal, peripheral straight lines demonstrated at the lung bases that represent thickened interlobular septa on CXR.

What are the Kerley B lines in congestive heart failure?

Kerley B lines in a patient with congestive heart failure. These are short parallel lines at the lung periphery. These lines represent interlobular septa, which are usually less than 1 cm in length and parallel to one another at right angles to the pleura.

What causes Kerley B lines on chest xray?

Causes of Kerley B lines include pulmonary edema, lymphangitis carcinomatosa and malignant lymphoma, viral and mycoplasmal pneumonia, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and sarcoidosis. They can be an evanescent sign on the chest x-ray of a patient in and out of heart failure.

What is the pathophysiology of keerley lines?

Kerley lines are a sign seen on chest radiographs with interstitial pulmonary edema. They are thin linear pulmonary opacities caused by fluid or cellular infiltration into the interstitium of the lungs.