What is a turbomolecular pump used for?

A turbomolecular pump is a type of vacuum pump, superficially similar to a turbopump, used to obtain and maintain high vacuum. These pumps work on the principle that gas molecules can be given momentum in a desired direction by repeated collision with a moving solid surface.

How does a turbopump work?

A rocket engine turbopump receives liquid propellants from vehicle tanks at relatively low pressure and supplies the same to its combustion chamber at a specific injection pressure and flow rate. The high-pressure gases involved in this chamber expand to power the turbine of the turbopump.

What ways turbomolecular pump is susceptible to damage?

Turbo-molecular pumps (TMP) often incur damage because of damage to external gas inlets such as clamp and view port, which often occur in industries or university laboratories where vacuum is applied.

What is fore vacuum?

Fore vacuum pumps are defined as those which exhaust to atmospheric pressure. There are two types of fore vacuum pumps: Dry-running backing pumps such as scroll, screw and diaphragm pumps. Oil-sealed pumps such as rotary vane pumps.

What is dry pump?

The definition of a dry vacuum pump is a pump that does not use any fluids to create a vacuum or contact the process gas and can also discharge to atmosphere. All dry vacuum rumps run hot, since there are no liquids to remove the heat created by compressing the gas.

How does a sorption pump work?

This pump absorbs gas molecules and exhausts them by cooling a porous absorbent with a large specific surface with liquid nitrogen. Absorbents are activated carbon and molecular sieves which surfaces are about 500 m3/1gram. This can perform rough pumping from the atmospheric pressure and generates clean vacuum.

What is a wet pump?

Pumps in which the gas is exposed to oil or water are “wet”, while those that do not expose their gas to oil or water are “dry”. Here are examples of each type of vacuum pump. Wet Vacuum Pumps. Wet vacuum pumps include both water-based and oil-lubricated pumps, where water or oil is used for lubrication or sealing.

What is a turbomolecular pump?

Key Performance Factors A turbomolecular pump (TMP) is a multi-stage axial-flow turbine in which high speed rotating blades provide compression by increasing the probability of gas molecules moving in the pumping direction.

What direction should the blades of a turbomolecular pump face?

For high compression ratios the throat between adjacent rotor blades (as shown in the image) is pointing as much as possible in the forward direction. For high flow rates the blades are at 45° and reach close to the axis. Schematic of a turbomolecular pump.

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When was the first turbomolecular drag pump invented?

The turbomolecular pump was invented in 1958 by W. Becker, based on the older molecular drag pumps developed by Wolfgang Gaede in 1913, Fernand Holweck in 1923 and Manne Siegbahn in 1944.