## Which theorem characterizes the planar graphs?

The Hanani–Tutte theorem states that a graph is planar if and only if it has a drawing in which each independent pair of edges crosses an even number of times; it can be used to characterize the planar graphs via a system of equations modulo 2.

## How do you prove a planar graph?

Properties of Planar Graphs:

1. If a connected planar graph G has e edges and r regions, then r ≤ e.
2. If a connected planar graph G has e edges, v vertices, and r regions, then v-e+r=2.
3. If a connected planar graph G has e edges and v vertices, then 3v-e≥6.
4. A complete graph Kn is a planar if and only if n<5.

What is Euler’s formula for planar graphs?

The equation v−e+f=2 v − e + f = 2 is called Euler’s formula for planar graphs .

### What is Euler’s theorem in graph theory?

This is known as Euler’s Theorem: A connected graph has an Euler cycle if and only if every vertex has even degree. If there are no vertices of odd degree, all Eulerian trails are circuits. If there are exactly two vertices of odd degree, all Eulerian trails start at one of them and end at the other.

### What are the main parts of the planar graph?

A planar graph is one that can be drawn in the plane with points representing the vertices, and “nice smooth curves or lines” that do not intersect representing the edges. Once such a graph is drawn or embedded in the plane, it is called a plane graph.

Is every subgraph of a planar graph planar?

Every subgraph of a planar graph is planar. Definition 4.2. A subdivision of an edge is the operation where the edge is replaced by a path of length 2, the internal vertex added to the original graph. A subdivision of a graph G is a graph achieved by a sequence of edge-subdivisions on G.

## What connected planar graph?

When a connected graph can be drawn without any edges crossing, it is called planar . When a planar graph is drawn in this way, it divides the plane into regions called faces . Draw, if possible, two different planar graphs with the same number of vertices and edges, but a different number of faces.

## What is a planar graph state and prove Euler’s theorem for a planar graph?

The theorem states that for any convex polyhedron, the sum of the number of vertices and the number of faces equals the number of edges plus two. This result also holds for a planar graph. Let X = (V,E) be a tree on n vertices. Then |E| = n − 1.

Why are planar graphs important?

A related important property of planar graphs, maps, and triangulations (with labeled vertices) is that they can be enumerated very nicely. This is Tutte theory. It is often the case that results about planar graphs extend to other classes. As I mentioned, Tutte theory extends to triangulations of other surfaces.

### What are the applications of planar graph?

In modern era, the applications of planar graphs occur naturally such as designing and structuring complex radio electronic circuits, railway maps, planetary gearbox and chemical molecules.

### What is Tutte embedding in graph theory?

In graph drawing and geometric graph theory, a Tutte embedding or barycentric embedding of a simple 3-vertex-connected planar graph is a crossing-free straight-line embedding with the properties that the outer face is a convex polygon and that each interior vertex is at the average (or barycenter) of its neighbors’ positions.

Is Tutte’s spring theorem applicable to 3-connected planar graphs?

By Steinitz’s theorem, the 3-connected planar graphs to which Tutte’s spring theorem applies coincide with the polyhedral graphs, the graphs formed by the vertices and edges of a convex polyhedron.

## What is tutte’s method of parametrized space?

(disk topology). Tutte’s method minimizes the total distortion energy of the parametrized space by considering each transformed vertex as a point mass, and edges across the corresponding vertices as springs. The tightness of each spring is determined by the length of the edges in the original 3D surface to preserve the shape.