What is MAC bacterial infection?

MAC lung disease is an infection caused a group of bacteria called Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC includes two closely related species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, and may also be referred to as MAI.

Is MAC disease fatal?

The studies identified in this systematic review show that, in general, patients with MAC lung disease are at a high risk of death following their diagnosis, with a pooled estimate of five-year all-cause mortality of 27%.

How do you get MAC disease?

MAC bacteria are found in water, soil, and dust. They infect people when the bacteria are inhaled or swallowed. MAC bacteria are not usually spread from person to person. MAC infections are diagnosed by a combination of imaging scans and identifying the bacteria in cultures of cells from the infected area.

How common is MAC disease?

In the United States, MAC infection is considered a nonreportable infectious disease. However, CDC surveillance data from Houston and Atlanta suggest an incidence of 1 case per 100,000 persons per year.

Who gets MAC infection?

Most people who get MAC infections are those living with HIV/AIDS, certain cancers, and lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, or bronchitis. In people with HIV, MAC infections are more likely to occur in those with CD4 counts less than 50 cells per cubic millimeter.

How do Mycoplasma viruses infect cells?

Unlike bacterial viruses that infect cells bounded by a cell wall, mycoplasma viruses have evolved to enter and propagate in mycoplasma cells bounded only by a single lipid-protein cell membrane.

What causes Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections?

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are caused by two types of bacteria: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. [1] These bacteria are found in many places including water (fresh or salt), household dust, and soil.

What kind of infection is Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection Home. In fact, pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae is sometimes referred to as “walking pneumonia” since symptoms tend to be milder than pneumonia caused by other germs. The most common type of illness caused by these bacteria, especially in children, is tracheobronchitis, commonly called a chest cold.

Why are mycoplasmas so complicated?

In addition, mycoplasmas have the smallest amount of genetic information of any known cells, so their complexity is constrained by a limited genetic coding capacity.