What causes immunogenic cell death?

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is defined by chronic exposure of damage‐associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the tumour microenvironment (TME), which stimulates the dysfunctional antitumour immune system. The induction of ICD contributes to long‐lasting protective antitumour immunity.

How does autophagy inhibit apoptosis?

For example, increased autophagy in nutrient deprived or growth factor-withdrawn cells allows cell survival (16, 17) by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, increased levels of autophagy can protect cells from apoptosis and this kind of caspase-independent death.

How is immunogenic cell death measured?

The main hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD) can be assessed by flow cytometry, (immuno)fluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, or luminometry, based on a variety of different approaches.

How does autophagy cause cell death?

Decreased expression of genes that regulate autophagy or mitophagy can cause degenerative diseases in which deficient quality control results in inflammation and the death of cell populations. Thus, the altering of mitochondrial functions is suggested to be associated with multiple degenerative diseases5.

How does autophagy lead to cell death?

Initially autophagy is induced in response to starvation and following this, cell death is triggered in response to an additional signal, differentiation-inducing factor (DIF-1). Both signals are required to induce cell death as starvation alone or DIF-1 exposure to non-starved cells is not sufficient to induce death.

When does cellular death begin?

Necrosis is cell death where a cell has been badly damaged through external forces such as trauma or infection and occurs in several different forms. In necrosis, a cell undergoes swelling, followed by uncontrolled rupture of the cell membrane with cell contents being expelled.